Done in Nov. 2002,

Roseanne Linko
The Founder of the JOEY Support Group
Just Open Everybodys eYes to Oppositional Defiant Disorder and other Disabilities Become a pen pal
Vent your anger and get answers about you child
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We understand because we walk the same path you do raising a child that no one seems to know why they behave the way they do Welcome, and come join us! Come and talk to me I know we are not alone. We will raise our children hand- in -hand,and if one of us stumbles, someone will be there to help us thruogh, and pick us up if we fall. A friend in need is a friend indeed! '

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Member of the Lions Club Rosie Linko
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My Motto: Welcome, and come join us! Come and talk to me I know we are not alone. We will raise our children hand- in -hand,and if one of us stumbles, someone will be there to help us thruogh, and pick us up if we fall. A friend in need is a friend indeed!

Thru the Eyes of A Storm (By Joey's Mom)

What is the single most important thing I can do to help my child? Get them tested by the school for a Learning Disability and get them into Behavior Modification Therapy
Sometimes when parents think everything is going their way; a lightening bolt hits them and the thunder rolls. You think you're stuck in a tornado, because your world is turning round and round. And you feel like your being turned inside out, all because you find out your son or daughter has A.D.D. or A.D.H.D. You're not a bad parent, but you feel like a terrible parent because you didn't see it happening right before your very eyes. But kids don't come with a handbook, so you didn't know what to look for. The sad part about this whole situation is that the teacher, who spends a good part of the day with your child, didn't see it either. These people are professionals. Your child behaves, is quiet in class and his grades aren't bad; this doesn't mean he should be over looked. Can you imagine how it must feel to that student with a disorder? He knows the answer to most of the questions a teacher asks, but doesn't know how to respond because it wasn't asked in the right way. And what is the right way? Education is the only way; learning how to deal with kids, who have disorders, is the only way. Some teachers don't have the education about A.D.D. or A.D.H.D. There are a lot of parents of children with disorders who have to learn and attend support groups in how to deal with these kids. Teachers should have to attend them too. It should be part of the education courses they take to become teachers. I'm sure that if it were their son or daughter, they would make the time to do it. Anybody working with kids should take the time to attend one of these meetings. They would then really take the time to look at a child, and understand why they act the way they do. A.D.D. stands for Attention Deficit Disorder and A.D.H.D. stands for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. It doesn't mean these kids are retarded. Their brain just processes information differently. Actually, these kids have high IQs. O.D.D. stand for Oppositional Defiant Disorder. Some people see it as a flaw in their personality just because they can't handle stress the way you or I can. Their feelings are too close to the surface. Now this isn't in all children with A.D.H.D.& O.D.D. (just ours). So how do they handle it? By screaming and yelling at you! It's their way of fighting back. Let's take for instance, the rug on the floor is green. This was an example that was given to me by the doctor. To a child with O.D.D., the rug is red. And they will argue that point with you till, out of shear mental anguish, you agree because they are going to oppose you anyway they can. They become very oppositional. But when you have a teenager it's worse because you don't know if it's A.D.H.D., O.D.D. or just being a teenager, (or hormones). But it's the same thing over and over again, until it gets to the point where you are asking yourself the big question and deep inside you know the answer. How do I get through to this kid, when is he ever going to just keep his mouth shut and listen instead of answering back? And you know the answer is never. But you have to keep trying because you know one of these days you'll get through, eventually. Till then, the never-ending story goes on and on. You'll loose your patience and quit often too. But you're only human, and so is he. You learn from your mistakes but it's not easy for them. Every day is a constant struggle to get through the day. In one way they have to be admired because it's a constant struggle for them. But then again where would they be if we, as parents, gave up on them? Where would they be today if we weren't so stubborn, and wanted to find out why they acted the way the do? I remember taking him to the doctors and not knowing what was wrong with him. The only thing I had to go on was that he acted odd. I never knew that there was a name for it: O.D.D. Oppositional Defiant Disorder. You can find info on A.D.H.D., A.D.D. & L.D. But very little is said about O.D.D., and I think its time for people to open their eyes and come out of the dark ages. Find out what it is, and what we can do as parents and teachers to help these kids. Why should they suffer because of our ignorance? They need all the help we can give them if we want to see them succeed in life. If you were on a boat with someone and they fell overboard, wouldn't you throw them a lifeline? These kids are drowning in our ignorance, and its time we read up on the subject. If a child reacts to a situation a certain way, let's find out why they are acting the way they are. I know it's hard to keep up with their different moods (what makes them act that way?). It's not you or anything you did. It's the chemical imbalance they have. I call it a catchall phrase. If the doctor can't figure out what's wrong with you, it's a chemical imbalance. But what caused the chemical imbalance? No one knows for sure; they think you were born with it. And it's very hard for someone to say you'll always have it even till the day you die. It's just one of the many different things in life you're going to have to live with. As you get older your body will be able to compensate for it and you'll be better able to handle it. There is very little information put out on the subject of O.D.D. But with the help of a few interested people, I'm sure we can change that. If you would like to help, my e-mail address is:

Without our help, these kids will end up at the short end of the stick. Is that fair?The only situation to the problem is to talk about it to some one else who is putting upwith the same things you are. So fire up that keyboard and start talking. That's why Istarted this web page, so you would be able to talk to someone and get an answer. Don't wait until tomorrow, do it today, PLEASE! For your child's sake! Is just the ending of a bad storm, or just the begining of one???

My son is older now so parents I can tell you that it is a struggle but it is well worth it. They were days that I really felt like I was going thru a bad storm. That is one reason I call my into Thru The Eyes Of A Storm. Boy did it ever feel like one. The lighting does crack and it rains like heck some days but those days are getting further apart. The Blue sky does show up and the storm clears. You have to take a lot from your child's tantrums. And you feel like throwing in the towel sometimes but don't give up. After all he still is your child and he can't help it if they act the way they do. The most proudest day we had was the day our son graduated. Today he is a cook and a darn good one. If you ever saw the way this child moves you would never think there was anything wrong with him. If it weren't for him having ADHD,ODD I don't think he would be as fast as he is in getting orders out. See sometimes it is a blessing in another way that he is special child.What I have learned rasing an ADHD, ODD, & LD child? That will drive you absolutely crazy at times . But you have to become the child's Advocate if you want them to get the right education. The most important thing is to be able to talk to your child and encourage them in everything that they do to get along in life teach them to think before they say anything, have them understand the disorder then they can help themselves handle the anger. I still remember trying to explain to my son what he has and it wasn't easy . I sat him down and try to explain it to him that was about the hardest thing a parent can do, but the words didn't come easy. As I tried to explain it to him I came out with a understanding of what it was and how I could help people. I told him it was not his fault and not ours but the disorder that makes him act the way he does. What he has was up to him to control it, he was like a lit firecracker and it was up to him if that firecracker was going to go off. One thing that worked for me was to have him take a deep breath and count to 20 before he asks something. It helped him calm down and it help me to answer without screaming. Remember every one involve with you child has to be on the same page, and as a parent it is up to you to make sure the school, Dr, Therapist etc. are all informed. The proudest time of my life was the day he graduated. We had teachers and parents complimenting us on what a good job we did to get him so far. Today he has a good job, he likes what he does and just got a raise. So if my child can do it so can yours.

Parent's    Beware    of    O.D.D.!

Hi, I know that raising a child with a disorder can be quite changeling at times, and either take it's toll on your marriage or your nerves. But after all the years of putting up with agony and heartache comes joy. Yes joy. When your child finally reaches that certain age, when they can make the decision to control the way they act. It makes life easier! I know that probably sound like bull at this stage of the game, but after years of therapy, and meds, a child actually comes to terms that they really don't want to act that way the disorder is making them act that way. So they come to realize that the only way to stop themselves from acting that way is to control the way they act. I hear my son saying to himself "NO WAY". I know we all heard that phrase a thousand times but this time he is saying it to control the way the disorder makes him act, and finally realizing that he doesn't want to act that way because there will be repercussions. He will either be punished for the way he acts, or be yelled at. It took quite a bit of years of going with the flow but he finally realizes, that he can't get away with it anymore. Because he is not a child anymore he is growing into an adult and adults don't act that way. So the best advice I can give any parent is hang in there it does get better! A little word of engoragement goes a long way for both parent and child!

Some of the signs of ODD! Oppositional Defiant Disorder A pattern of negativistic, hostile, and defiant behavior lasting at least 6 months, during which four (or more) of the following are present: (a) often loses temper (b) often argues with adults (c) often actively defies or refuses to comply with adults' requests or rules (d) often deliberately annoys people (e) often blames others for his or her mistakes or misbehavior (f) is often touchy or easily annoyed by others (g) is often angry and resentful (h) is often spiteful or vindictive Note: Consider a criterion met only if the behavior occurs more frequently than is typically observed in individuals of comparable age and developmental level. The disturbance in behavior causes clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. The behaviors do not occur exclusively during the course of a Psychotic or Mood Disorder. Criteria are not met for Conduct Disorder, and, if the individual is age 18 years or older, criteria are not met for Antisocial Personality Disorder.

My Snazzy List of Links

The JOEY Support Group Page LD Online: Math Disabilities JOEY Support Message Board

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School    Based    Modifications

School Based Modifications: Every child in the United States is entitled to a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). Children with ADD are protected by several federal laws, including the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). If a handicapping condition interferes with a "major life activity, i.e.: learning," then, school districts MUST provide modifications and related services in order to make a FAPE accessible to each and every student. Therefore, wherever you are, your child is entitled by law to a complete educational evaluation, and is also entitled to remediations and modifications that will facilitate learning. You may require an advocate or a lawyer to help, but it's worth it to get any or all of the following, as they may apply: •schedule all academic subjects in the morning; all electives in the afternoon (as the day wears on, the will wears off!) •an extra set of books to keep at home (to prevent being overwhelmed after an absence, to remove the excuse of "I forgot my book" at homework time, and to reduce stress when it comes to a choice between the bus or the books.) •an extra couple of days to hand in written work (in case it gets lost) • extra time to access a locker or make class changes (to reduce the stress associated with fear of detention) •make eye contact with the student when giving directions (to bring him/her back to task and keep him there) •be sensitive to the student in front of his peers (to proact, and set a good example for the peer group) •provide time-out in a positive setting, as needed •eliminate Scantron testing forms entirely (have you ever observed a child with his/her shirt buttoned wrong all the way down? Also, it is harder to stay on task, if you have to keep moving your head back and forth between the test booklet and the answer sheet) •remove time limits on testing •provide LARGE TYPE tests for all subject areas, as well as standardized tests (kids find large type less stressful and easier to read) •have teachers/parents review and sign a homework pad daily •provide note-taking assistance by the teacher •allow the use of a tape recorder for lecture type learning formats and also for brainstorming ideas for writing assignments •provide encouragement and praise whenever possible •provide opportunities to have responsibilities in class, i.e.: taking a note to the office, passing out papers, etc. This builds self esteem: we all need to be needed. • seat student preferentially between good role models and away from distractions, such as window and doors •provide computer assistive technology - access to a computer in school (more on computers later) • provide keyboard and word processing training •provide social skills training (social cues, body language, assertiveness training, stress reduction, proacting, etc.) •Provide in-class support with an Instructional Aide in the Mainstream class, or •In a pull-out replacement resource room, give the special ed. teacher the role of "anchor," and liaison to the mainstream. Allow completion and retake of tests in special ed. setting. •Provide for co-grading between special ed. and mainstream teachers (we are facilitating success here!) •Provide pull-out replacement resource center for organizational skills training and/or other remediation •Provide Basic Skills Improvement classes, if warranted by test scores on standardized tests •Provide supplementary education (tutoring) •Make homework available for pickup the first day of absence (so the child will not be overwhelmed with make-up work) • Provide opportunities to earn extra credit •Ensure that medication will be given at appropriate times, as per doctor's prescription. Access to activities and class trips may not be denied due to lack of personnel to administer meds. •All of the above is the responsibility of the school district, according to each child's "unique needs." Most may be delivered whether or not the child is classified. Classified students are covered under IDEA + 504 + ADA. All others are covered by 504 + ADA. Not every child with ADD needs to be classified. It's up to you, the parent, to become educated about ADD, and to find an advocate to help you to obtain these services for your child. If a modification is not written down concretely into an IEP or a 504 Plan, there is no way to insist that it be implemented by the district. So, get it in writing!

Some of these ideas are mine, some are not in use anymore, and some are from the internet.


Provide an outline of the lecture Have student fill in blanks on structured outline Have another student carbon copy notes Allow notes in either manuscript or cursive Allow time for students to catch up Demonstrate abbreviated or speed writing techniques Allow student to tape record lectures Provide activities to practice getting main ideas Write down key words on black board Use preferred seating Tell students what information you want in their notebook Provide what you need to know charts


Assign students to work in groups accountable to each other
Have student repeat directions to be sure they understand Help student prepare a work plan for a long range assignments Reducing large projects into shorter, more frequent tasks Frequently check progress on long term projects- provide frequent reinforcement Provide sufficient time for students to complete work Consider interest level of assignment and be enthusiastic Discuss purpose of assignment with student Leave list of assignments on the board for several days Meet with the student and explain consequences for not completing work Use contract to outline conditions and rewards Request that student keep a self progress record Provide early morning wrap up session for students to complete assignments Keep the number of practice items on any skill to a minimum


Provide directions in writing and verbally Keep directions clear and concise Limit the amount of directions given at one time Demonstrate the task to be done for the student Outline the steps of the task Have the student repeat directions before starting Frequently check the student's work Use markers to tell student where to start and stop assignment Be consistent in requests and directions Write directions down and verbally reinforce Read printed directions out load Break directions down to small segments. use short sentences to describe each step, and say each step in sequential order Place student close to teacher for more immediate help when needed Place student next to another student who can help them when needed

Show students how to preview or survey each chapter or lesson before reading it Help students determine a propose for reading each section Use Illustrations, pictures and other visual clues Rewrite material, keeping content but lowering reading level Have a student read a report on topic written by another student Outline topic using vocabulary Teach new vocabulary words prior to reading text Have student listen while others reads aloud Prepare alternative assignments or projects Control reading level of tests and handouts Supply information in form other than written Provide an outline of readings Try to install interest in material before you assign the readings Teach how to locate main facts and key words Reduce the amount of reading required Give them specific questions to guide their reading


Have student repeat directions before starting assignment Combine use of visual and auditory approaches Encourage writing and repetition through writing Provide for repetition during initial skill acquisition Provide for practice once skill is learned Encourage over learning Provide opportunities to apply learned skills to new and different tasks Help develop auditory and sensory devices, like flash cards Give some open book tests Put reminders on board and around the room


Allow student to respond in writing by keeping a journal Use tape recorder for practice Stay away from oral tests Have student write thoughts first then read them Have a student practice in front of a mirror before oral presentation Give alternative assignments Have student demonstrate a familiar task orally Give student several alternatives in obtaining information.


Utilize a variety of comminution; such as oral reports and hands- on approach Provide practice in written expression Provide opportunities to improve spelling and handwriting Ask questions that require short answers instead of essays Provide dictionaries or specialized spelling list Display in the classroom any vocublary words that are difficult to spell Give oral exams Request that the special education resource person read the test to the student


Spell out classroom rules and limits Make rules clear, specific, and fair Be consistent in dealing with student Follow thru(avoid idle threats) Reward appropriate behavior Develop contracts with student Use peer pressure Remove student from situation or redirect activity Use assertive discipline plan


Teach test-taking skills: Read each question carefully before answering Use true and false for answers to tests Provide a structured study guide


Set up specific schedule for the student Give frequent reassurance and immediate feedback Provide for success Try a contact system Set realistic goals that are clearly attainable Break complicated tasks into small, carefully arranged steps Give a variety of tasks( quite and active) Use high interest activities Stress relevance Allow some time for the project to be completed Practice a positive approach Be realistic in requests and encouragement Give directions slowly Use praise often Emphasize strengths and acceptance Change activities before students attention span is gone


Emphasize development of outlines, and carefully kept notebooks etc. Provide a sample of a well organize notebook Provide a table of contents to be used as a checklist for notebook Have the students keep a n assignment book Give clear directions for the assignment that needs to be done Try to stick to a daily routine Provide information organizers Provide structured study guide

Q. How can I get my child to behave?

A. In general, children need to have limits and structure. Calmly explain your expectations for his or her behavior and try to have your child agree to work on help solving the problem. See if you can be partners in this where the problem is not them, but their behavior. The solution is to find a way between you to promote reasonably good behavior for a child their age.

Usually punishment is short termed in its effect. Try praising good behavior and use rewards when you notice how well they are doing. Children misbehave for a reason, so try to find out what they need to stop the poor behavior. Also, find out what is going on when they behave well - this may be even more important.

What is a Functional Assessment?


My son receives special education services at our junior high school, but is in a regular classroom for most of his school day. He receives detention or in-school suspension several times a week for being disruptive in the regular classroom, and has even been sent home for a cooling-off period several times over the past few months. His teachers have tried to be helpful, and are willing to do what they can, but they say that he refuses to do his work, gets angry for no apparent reason, and sometimes just leaves the classroom. They want to send him to another school where he can get more services. I've had many meetings with the school staff to change his program, but I still do not understand why he is having such problems in the first place. His problems are not so severe at home or in the neighborhood. My friend told me to ask the school to do a functional assessment of his behavior. Is that different from the assessment schools typically do?

ANSWER:A functional behavioral assessment, or analysis, is a process which seeks to identify the problem behavior a child or adolescent may exhibit, particularly in school, to determine the function or purpose of the behavior, and to develop interventions to teach acceptable alternatives to the behavior. The process is as follows:
I. Identify the behavior that needs to change, 2. Collect data on the behavior, 3. Develop a "hypothesis" (best guess) about the reason for the behavior, 4. Develop an intervention to help change the behavior 5. Evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention 6. Have patience The first step in conducting a functional behavioral assessment is for the school team to identify and agree upon the behavior that most needs to be changed. Children and youth can exhibit a spectrum of difficult behaviors; it will be important to develop a prioritized list, so that the most severe behaviors can be addressed first. There will be times when the most appropriate response to irritating but non-dangerous behaviors is planned ignoring, particularly when the student is working on correcting more severe behaviors. The second step is to collect data on the occurrence of the targeted behavior, identifying not only its frequency and intensity, but examining the context (the when, where and how) of the behavior. Consider:

A. In what settings does the behavior occur most often? B. Where did it occur most recently? C. Who else was there? D. What is unique about the environment where the behavior occurred? (size of classroom, number of students, teaching style, seating, distractions, academic/behavioral expectations, structure) E. What other behavior occurred just before the targeted behavior? (interaction with another student, change in tasks, teacher direction, etc.) F. What were the immediate consequences of the behavior? (teacher attention, student laughter, etc.)

G. Could the consequences be seen as positive for the student? The third step is to develop, from the data collected, an hypothesis about the function or purpose of the student's behavior and to develop an intervention. A. What does the team believe is the reason for the behavior? (attention-getting, avoidance, peer acceptance, etc.)

B. What is the agreed upon strategy to correct the behavior?

C. How much time will be given to implementing the intervention? (patience is key to behavioral change) After the intervention has been tried over a period of time, it will be important to test the hypothesis. Does the intervention need to be paired with other modifications or rewards to increase its effectiveness? Did the intervention reduce the problem behavior? If not, what other strategies can be considered? Is it necessary to re-evaluate the hypothesis, or to develop another best guess about the reason for the behavior, or to collect more information? While conducting a functional assessment of a child's behavior may take a bit more time initially to complete, for those students for whom typical interventions have not been successful, developing an understanding of the cause of behavior may be key to helping them learn new behavioral skills. Functional assessments have been used for many years with students who have severe disabilities, to help parents and teachers to understand the function of inappropriate behavior, and to plan effective interventions. Functional assessments are also a useful approach to evaluating the reason for inappropriate behaviors for students who have milder disabilities, when their behaviors do not improve with the use of typical school interventions. It sounds as though you and the school staff are both frustrated by your son's lack of behavioral improvement, and, in this instance, a functional behavioral assessment may be a very good idea. If the disrict hasnot done this yet for your child, find out why. Ask for it in writing!

Behavior Supports : The issue of "problem" behavior has historically presented a challenge to educators in Pennsylvania and the nation at large. One of the greatest challenges that the educational community faces is to design and deliver systems that support children who present problem behavior in school and community settings.In order to build an ecology of effective behavioral support in schools, educators, in partnership with their local community, need to focus on the interactive relationship between student behavior and contextual factors in Pennsylvania. A comprehensive approach to behavioral support in schools is viewed as being comprised of 1) school wide systems (typically referred to as a "discipline code"), 2) setting specific systems, 3) classroom based systems, and 4) individual student systems.

Postive Behavior Support: Support teams working with children who demonstrate challenging behavior are encouraged to use the this five-step planning process in designing behavioral support plans. It is intended that the team progress through steps one through five in the order in which they are presented. Use of this planning process should be part of the student's Individualized Educational Plan (IEP) as appropriate, with the form entitled "Behavioral Support Plan (Summary Document)" attached to the IEP as an overview of the agreed-upon behavior management plan.

Instructional Strategies : Instructional strategies encompass a wide range of instructional techniques, activities, processes, procedures, and frameworks designed to help students acquire, use and retain skills, facts, concepts and principles. The implementation of instructional strategies has a profound impact in determining which methods, materials, devices, setting, resources, media and physical location will be used for instruction. Instructional strategies are perceived here as good teaching practices that can benefit all students - with disabilities and without disabilities in regular classrooms and self-contained classrooms.
Services: The Central Instructional Support Center works collaboratively with your local Intermediate Unit to meet your technical assistance and training needs. These services may include: Staff development plan development Onsite consultation Guided practice System planning sessions Small group training Large group training Curriculum:

The student's IEP is developed based on his/her response to the general education curriculum. Instructional strategies are therefore selected/designed and implemented to address the students needs as they are related to the general education curriculum. As a general rule, strategies selected to address an individual student's needs that also benefit the entire class should be considered first. Next, strategies are chosen that benefit a group of students in the class based on need. Finally, strategies that only relate to the specific need of a student are selected when it is the only option that is likely to work and enable the student to be successfully included in the general education classroom. Consistent implementation of instructional strategies is more likely to occur if it is used with and benefits the entire class.

The pace, level, feedback, and opportunities to practice new learning determined by the curriculum are all relevant to student success or failure and therefore have a decided impact on type of instructional strategies selected and subsequently implemented. Instructional strategies specified in the specially designed instruction section of the student's IEP or included with the annual goals and short-term objective should be considered first. It is expected that they were selected based on careful monitoring of student progress over time with adjustments made as necessary. Assessment: Assessment is a critical component that must be conducted prior to choosing and during the implementation of instructional strategies for a given student. Instructional strategies should be initially selected based on the impact they have on the student's rate of learning. Instructional assessment is the only relevant way this is determined. Once appropriate strategies are selected the students response to instruction should be monitored and adjusted as necessary.Some instructional strategies not only have the potential to increase student learning, but provide opportunities for formative assessment. Many active learning strategies, cooperative learning processes and activities, and strategies to elicit student participation serve as examples. Instruction: There are opportunities to employ a variety instructional strategies throughout the entire instructional design. They extend from the beginning of the lesson where new learning is introduced and linked to student experiences and prior learning, to best-shot instruction, to guided practice, to the end of the lesson where learning is summarized and tied to the larger topic. These strategies can include a diverse range of approaches that can serve to motivate, provide structure, and respond to individual approaches to learning and demonstration of that learning. Consultants Regional Educational Consultants are available to help support intermediate units and school districts in their efforts to train their staffs in development and implementation of instructional strategies. The consultants can be utilized to help plan staff development programs, conduct training, provide guided practice, identify locations for site visits by staff, and locate speakers and trainers within and outside of the Instructional Support System of Pennsylvania. Training/ Events: Trainings are school-based, local, and regional. The Central Instructional Support Center works collaboratively with your local Intermediate Unit to meet your district or individual building training needs. The focus of the training can be at either the elementary or secondary level. Following instructional strategy training, guided practice in the classroom is available to teachers to implement strategies addressed during the training session(s) The topic "Instructional Strategies" is a training topic that covers an array of sub-topics. The following are a sampling of topics that have been conducted for local educational agencies: Active Learning Cooperative Learning Visual Organizers Structuring Student Assignments 1 Study Skills Multiple Intelligence Accommodating Students With Disabilities and At-Risk Students in the Regular Classroom Strategies to Increase Student Participation in the Classroom Focus on Teaching and Learning in Content Classes Check our training database for events currently scheduled. The Central Instructional Support Center works collaboratively with your local Intermediate Unit to meet your training needs. Please feel free to contact us regarding your specific professional development needs.

Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder

Six (or more) of the following inattention have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level: Inattention Either (1) or (2) (A) (a) often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in school work, work, or other activities. (b) often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities. (c) often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly. (d) often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish school work, chores, or duties in the work place ( not due to oppositional behavior or failure to understand instructions.) (e) often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities. (f) often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort (such as homework or school work.) (g) often looses things necessary for tasks or activities( toys, school assignments, pencils, books, etc.) (h) is often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli. (i ) is often forgetful in daily activities. (2) Six ( or more) of the following symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level: Hyperactivity (a) often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat. (b) often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected. (c) often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate (in adolescents or adults, may be limited to subjective feelings of restlessness). (d) often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly. (e) is often "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor". (f) often talks excessively. (g) often blurts out the answers before Questions have been completed. (h) often has difficulty awaiting turn. (i) often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games.)

B. Some hyperactive-impulsive or inattentive symptoms that caused impairment were present before age 7. C. Some impairment from the symptoms is present in two or more settings (e.g., at school [or work] or at home.) D. There must be clear evidence of clinically significant impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. E. The symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a Pervasive Developmental Disorder, Schizophrenia, or other Psychotic Disorder and are not better accounted for by another mental disorder (e.g., Mood Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, Dissociative Disorder, or a Personality Disorder, Oppositional Diffiant Disorder.)
Another place to contact is CH.A.D.D. at 1-800-233-4050 or 1-954-587-3700

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